Proof of Participation (PoP): Asynchronous Byzantine Activity-Oriented Protocol

1. Introduction

At any asynchronous decentralized system there is a main task for any active process. The main task for a single process is to know the current state of other active related processes. In conventional asynchronous protocol, there is no other method besides sending a state request to all the processes of a network. In our context, the asynchronous protocol is a protocol that works with processes each of which is associated with one or several business contracts. By Smart Transactions the main task can be easily solved by dynamic verification of process’s input channel.

  1. to identify and classify the contracts.
  2. to identify the parties of a specific contract.
  3. to identify the authority of the contract (founder of contract).
  4. to authorize parties of the contract by their access rights.
  5. to phase each peer-to-peer activity on the contract.
  6. to permit any operations with the contract’s data.

2. The main challenges of a decentralized system

2.1. Asynchrony

3. Consensus problem

The problem of reaching agreement among a set of remote computers (nodes) is one of the most fundamental problems in any distributed system.

4. PoP principles

Proof of Participation Protocol is based on three principles that are coming from its name. Asynchrony, Byzantine-tolerance and Economybased collaboration.

  1. Other node (‘s) with the same protocol state sends a retransmission request to the faulty node.
  1. Other node (‘s) with the same protocol state sends a retransmission request to the faulty node.

5. Multicast messaging

One of the advantages in PoP network is that every single transaction is multicast to predetermined recipients. A recipient is always a party of one or many contracts. In most cases, during an execution of the contract the transactions are unicast between each party. It greatly clears PoP network from “noisy” messages and does it more robust and fast.

6. Protocol specification

PoP Protocol is intended to be light and quick. Lightness is achieved by using a direct unicast message to a predetermined contract-related recipient. In compared with TCP protocol, PoP Protocol have a series of advantages in terms of business contracts:

  1. it doesn’t need any handshake procedure because right after a signing of the contract all its parties are known about each phase step of a single party.

7. Protocol implementation

The main focus of the protocol implementation is a business contractoriented network. The business network can include but not limited:

  1. small business with several departments between which a service contract (‘s) can be established.

8. Validity

Validity of a transaction is a crucial component in any decentralized system. Methods and approaches to a violation of any process are different and directly depend on predetermined requirements between parties of the process. In general, the requirements are based on a list of evidences. In terms of PoP network, the structural contract-related evidences can be presented as follows:

9. Stability

Independence of speculative exchange actions and other artificial market events makes any currency or stock (fiat or crypto) extremely attractive for any investors worldwide. But the task “to get stable” is not such a trivial one as it might be seemed. The stability is strongly tied to economy of a system. That is why in PoP network we are directly focusing on an economic activity of the participants. As a measure unit of that activity we propose hours (or minutes) that are calculated in a contract. Each participant of the contract (‘s) is assigned a fixed amount of hours for his or her job. For example, in [7] is realized a first worldwide electronic currency that is intended to be stable by the principle of mutual beneficial activity between participants of NCN. So, in terms of finance system, the electronic currency can be economically tied to a contract’s hours.

10. Conclusion

We have proposed a decentralized economical mechanism for practical realization of any business activity. The mechanism allows its users to avoid a Byzantine Generals problem in many cases. Fundamental technology of the mechanism, “Smart Transactions”, let the users create thousands of associative business networks (NCN) with millions of internetwork connections (transactions). One of the key features, “economy-based activity” let the users of PoP network build a full-scale stable business application of any kind.

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